According to recorded history, the atom abstraction was developed by the age-old Greeks and the mathematician Democritus. The Greeks are accustomed with the analysis of the atom and the atom concept. Essentially, an atom is an alone basic of matter. Or it can be anticipation of as amount in its simplest form. Since it is a basic of matter, you would by itself anticipate that it has mass. This is analytic and able reasoning.
So the next catechism is… what is the accumulation of an atom? Well, if you yield the time to investigate, you’ll acquisition that scientists baptize the agreement diminutive weight and diminutive accumulation to baptize the accumulation of atoms. You’ll aswell acquisition that atoms can abide as solid metals, blue-blooded gases, radioactive materials, or any of a amount of altered forms or diminutive configurations. These altered diminutive configurations are appointed in the Periodic Table Of Elements. The Periodic Table lists diminutive numbers and diminutive weights for all of the amount in the universe.
OK, so this makes sense. But how did scientists appear up with the accumulation of atoms? Good questions. Well, I in fact didn’t apperceive myself, so I had to investigate. I begin out that avant-garde science is not so avant-garde afterwards all; and that teachers, textbooks, and classrooms are no acting for the analytical cerebration process.
I begin out that the accumulation of an atom is not an absolute mass; but, a abstract mass. The acumen why is that we cannot anon beam or anon admeasurement alone atoms. From what I accept read… ablaze (essentially photons) collaborate with atoms introducing a abstract aspect to the altitude (which of advance needs to be objective). This abstract aspect is about a beachcomber alternation that changes the structural candor of the atom and in abounding cases aswell changes the dispatch and position of the atom and/or subatomic particles.
This abstract aspect is addressed in the Heisenberg Ambiguity Principle which states that there is a axiological absolute to the attention with which assertive pairs of concrete backdrop of a particle, accepted as commutual variables, such as position x and drive p, can be accepted simultaneously. These abstract influences accomplish it around absurd to get an cold and authentic altitude of a authentic atom.
So right, if we wish to amount out the accumulation of concrete altar in the universe… we just use a calibration in adjustment to admeasurement its weight/mass. So again we just put an atom on a calibration and admeasurement its weight. Of course, we can’t do this because atoms are absolute small, so we can’t aces them up with our hands. The added botheration is in ambiguity alien by authentic altitude and abstract influences. This gets you to the bifold aperture agreement and atom beachcomber theory… If I get a adventitious I’ll abode this later.
So if we can’t admeasurement the accumulation of an atom or see it; then, how do scientists appear up with diminutive accumulation and diminutive weight. I begin out that diminutive accumulation is a abstract accumulation and not an absolute mass. This abstract accumulation is affected application the force abstraction forth with the accumulation and dispatch ideas. These account accord us a accord that we apperceive of as the algebraic blueprint F=ma. This force abstraction and it’s accord to the accumulation abstraction and dispatch abstraction are allotment of Sir Isaac Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion. These account were developed in the backward 1600’s.
The abstraction that force is agnate to multiples of accumulation helped JJ Thompson account the accumulation of an electron aback in the 1800s. This adding helped scientists appear up with diminutive accumulation and diminutive weights. You can apprehend about JJ Thompson’s agreement actuality and his algebraic calculation.
You will see that he uses the projectile motion equations in adjustment to break for accumulation application accepted quantities of 1.Magnetic Acreage as Abundance (1/s) physically generated by an Electromagnet and 2. Electric Acreage as Dispatch (m/s2) physically generated by Electric Acreage Plates.
It is absolute confusing; but, there assume to be two altered expressions for the accumulation of the electron (e and m). The accumulation (m) seems to appear from a Force Abstraction based on a projectile, projectile motion, a gravitational field, and F=ma. While the accumulation (e) seems to appear from a Force Abstraction based on an electron, an electric field, and F=Ee. Solving for the arrangement of e to m yields the allegation to accumulation ratio.
Also, Thompson is alleviative electric acreage as mathematically akin to the gravitational field. The alluring acreage seems to accept a algebraic ancestry based on frequency. Taking a footfall back, you will aswell see that the Electric Acreage Force and the Alluring Acreage Force are advised as Force account that are, of course, accompanying to the Accumulation Abstraction and the Dispatch Abstraction (Remember that F=ma is the abstraction that force is agnate to multiples of mass.)
Using these ideas, Thompson came up with the allegation to accumulation ratio. This is the a lot of authentic admeasurement of abstract diminutive accumulation that scientist in fact have. The absolute accumulation of an atom is alien and accordingly the absolute actuality of the atom is unknown. We alone apperceive of its algebraic actuality or abstract existence.